Florence Nightingale Shore and the Truth of Her Murder

If you watched Tom Dalton’s Agatha Christie and the Truth of Murder whodunit on Channel 5 over Christmas, or have read Rosemary Cook’s The Nightingale Shore Murder then you’ll know the story already. On January 12th 1920, the goddaughter and second cousin of Lady of the Lamp, Florence Nightingale enters the carriage of a London-to-Brighton South East Express train and is found beaten and left for dead in the same, sealed compartment as the train enters Bexhill-on-Sea. There are no signs of a violent struggle, and the lady’s dressing case is found as originally placed. On her lap is an open book (Edinburgh Evening News 13 January 1920, p.5). A young man was said to have followed her into the compartment as the train left Victoria Station. An amethyst pendant originally reported missing was subsequently found and other jewelry was in a dressing case (Daily Herald 16 January 1920 p.1).

Her murderer and his motive remains unknown to this day.

‘Sensational Outrage’ – Illustrated Police News 22 Jan 1920 suggesting the attack was sudden with no violent struggle

One of the most famous suspects in the case was Percy Toplis, but what many people won’t have been told until now, is that the first man arrested by Police was Ernest C. Brown, a former Captain in the RAF and branch division President of the Comrades of the Great War in Glasgow (Train Outrage Mystery, Aberdeen Press and Journal 19 January 1920, p.5). Until now, little about him was known, but an interview he provides to the American press in 1926, casts new light on the mystery, as Ernest admits to having been a suspect a further two unsolved mysteries in a period spanning four years. In each case, the scope and potential for espionage is substantial, to say the least. His secondment to the Allied Commission in Constantinople in 1922 is particularly intriguing as this was a critical period politically and economically, for Britain, Turkey and Russia. The fact that the brother of Florence Nightingale Shore had served as Military Attache in Russia during the the 1918-1920 Civil War, only adds to the layers of intrigue that started with Brown’s arrest as a possible spy in a Faslane story in 1918 2 (Train Outrage, Daily Herald 15 January 1920, p.1)

His full story can be read below:

Click to Enlarge – Canton Daily News Sunday, August 15, 1926 – Page 43

In relation to Toplis and the Etaples Mutiny, the fact that Ernest C. Brown was a Branch President of the Comrades of the Great War in Glasgow is another intriguing detail.

Harry Fallows — the only man to place Toplis at the scene of the crime — talks about showing his Comrades of the Great War membership card in his formal Police statement, despite only having completed a few months active service (Harry Fallows Statement to Sergeant White, Hampshire Constabulary). Secondly, the real Etaples Mutineer, James Cullen (also from Glasgow) had his demobilization case taken up by Comrades of the Great War and discussed in Parliament by Churchill. The man discussing Cullen’s case with Churchill was the organization’s founder — the ultra Conservative MP Wilfrid Ashley. As a member of the Anti-Socialist Union and the People’s League party, Ashley was very closely aligned with a mysterious early intelligence figure called Sir George Makgill (who created what some refer to as D Section of Mi6). D Section were fiercely anti-Bolshevik and Makgill’s intelligence methods were described as brutal and extreme even by those who used his services (Churchill’s intelligence man, Desmond Morton, head of Section V at Mi6, was among them).

Makgill keeps cropping up in all the various threads I’ve been following and its worth noting that at the time of Florence’s death there were significant events taking place in Russia, where Florence’s brother, Brigadier General Offley Shore had been serving as British Attaché to the Russian Forces in Tiflis (modern day Georgia). Shore had remained at his headquarters as part of the Imperial network of spies and embassy staff until he was replaced by Colonel Pike in spring 1918. A number of ministers within the Foreign Office had been concerned at Shore’s refusal to share intelligence with anyone other than the War Office. None was more concerned than Senior British diplomat, Sir Charles Marling who seemed determined to have Shore removed. A renewed Turkish offensive had threatened Allied efforts to guard the Baltic territories of Transcaucasia against Bolshevik advances. Allied defences were being shored-up by Armenian and Georgian forces who requested the immediate release of British-held funds controlled by Brigadier Shore to secure additional weaponry. Despite being ordered to release them by Marling, Shore, still head of the mission, refused to do so (The British Military Involvement in Transcaucasia, 1917-1919, p.32).

Situation in the Caucasus, Offley Shore, Head of the British Mission, National Archives, CAB 24/36

As a response, Captain Edward Noel, a respected and perhaps more tractable member of the British Secret Service, was brought in by Marling. According to Timothy C. Winegard, professor of history at Colorado Mesa University, Noel ’s job was to monitor communications and ensure that all intelligence and funds were shared immediately with whoever necessity demanded and whatever the cost politically (The First World Oil War, Timothy C. Winegard, p.159-160). Protecting British and American interests in the Baku oilfields became priority number one (read: Michael Tillotson’s 2018 Times article).

Marling had already incurred the wrath of the Bolsheviks by backing first cousin to the Tsar, Dmitri Pavlovich as ‘British candidate’ for the Russian throne. Pavlovich, who had been exiled by the Tsar over the murder of Romanov confidant, Grigori Rasputin in 1916, had struck-up a close personal bond with Marling and both men regarded Shore as an obstacle in attempts to restore a Tsarist regime. Shore and the War Cabinet’s refusal to recognize the urgency of arming the Armenians and Geog had considerably undermined the allied efforts and Churchill’s ‘secret war with Lenin’.

Tom Dalton’s Agatha Christie and the Truth of Murder, Dec 2018

At time of Florence Shore’s murder in January 1920, General Kolchak, the White Russian leader we’d been supporting against Lenin’s government, was handed over to the Bolsheviks and brutally murdered. The withdrawal of British and American troops had left Kolkchak and his troops exposed, and the General had been forced to surrender. The exit route we’d promised him had been removed too. His hopes of escaping across the border to the British Mission had been scuppered.

The man that Makgill and his people had been preparing as the Tsar’s replacement in Russia was Marling’s friend, ally and member of the Tiflis dynasty, the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich. Pavlovich was in exile in London at this time and its possible that the attack on Florence could have been a revenge attack by Tsarist loyalists (or their supporters) in London. During these same months, Dmitri Pavlovich was just receiving word of the violent death of his stepbrother and other members of the Tsar’s extended family. Like Florence, they had been bludgeoned to death — possibly by the butts of guns. The White Russian exiles in London certainly felt betrayed by the allies (as did Churchill who had done his level best to support the Whites).

Was Ernest C. Brown the regular man of mystery he makes out to be in the interview? Well despite some of the things he mentions being a little too hard to verify at this time, the story of Brown’s time with the Allied Mission in Turkey and being arrested for the murder of a Turkish Officer in Galata (November 1921) certainly chimes with real events — and is also directly linked to further real or imagined Bolshevik plots.

The relative obscurity of the event, also lessens the probability of outright invention.

Brown’s third arrest seems to coincide with something called the ‘Harington Plot’ in Turkey in July/September 1921. The world press were at this time reporting on Russian plots assassinate General Harington. The plots, which proved to be unfounded, had been ‘unearthed’ by British Intelligence, or, as I think is far more likely, the men working for Sir George Makgill’s utterly unmanageable and unaccountable, Section D. It seems that central to the plot was a scheme to spark a mutiny among Moslem troops serving as part of the British Imperial forces (Arrests Constantinople, The Scotsman 22 September 1921).

Curiously, the man leading questions about the plot in the British House of Commons was Comrades of the Great War founder (and George Makgill ally), Colonel Wilfrid Ashley. 3

Reports of the time hint at various reprisals and agent provocateurs and a good number of arrests were made by Turkish police. Was Ernest C. Brown one of those arrested? And was he part of an unauthorized plot launched by Makgill’s men to derail ongoing trade negotiations between Britain, Turkey and Russia? 4

The final irony is that it was the Reading Room at the British Library that proved so central to Ernest Brown’s alibi. The room’s status in all manner of spy capers is legendary.

Red Plot in Turkey, Nottingham Evening Post 07 July 1921 p 1

A Cousin at Mi5

As strange as it may seem, there is another dimension to this spy story that is every bit as intriguing. Perhaps more so.

It transpires that a cousin of Nurse Shore, Rafaele Farina became Head of Section for Mi6 in Riga in February 1921. Prior to this, he was the Head of the Russian Section at Mi5, dealing with a regular flow of political exiles, revolutionaries and slippery agent provocateurs. Farina is also alleged to have played a key role in the infamous Zinoviev Letter — an extraordinary spy caper that helped crash the election hopes Ramsay MacDonald’s Labour government in 1924.

If you’ve read Rosemary Cook’s excellent book on the Nurse Shore murder then you will have come across some of these names before.

Farina was the brother of Offley and Florence’s cousin, Brigadier Clarence John Hobkirk (b.1869) of Trellech near Newport, Monmouthshire. As you mat recall from the book, Clarence Hobkirk acted as executor in both Florence and Offley’s wills. Both sister and brother left sums in securities to be paid to Clarence’s brother Stuart William Tatton Hobkirk (b.1868), the artist. Florence also left him her diamond pendant. According to Keith Jeffrey’s history of Mi6, Nurse Shore’s half-cousin, Raffaele Lewis Julian Farina had been at the Ministry of Munitions and in Mi5’s Russian Section prior to joining Mi6. He had also worked as a mining engineer for Orsk Gold Mines/Siberian Proprietary Mines Ltd in Russia and in the Trans-Baikalian Gold Mines of the Altai Mountains in Siberia between the years 1906-1911 (MI6: The History of the Secret Intelligence Service 1909-1949, Keith Jeffery). In 1903, Farina married Isabel Anna Baird Smith, the granddaughter of Richard Baird Smith, the Chief Engineer of the East India Company and hero of the Siege of Delhi and the Indian Mutiny.

In 1914 Farina was on his way to join his cousin Offley Shore in the Caucasus (Mining Magazine, Volume 11, 1914, p.355). He returned to Cornwall in 1915. The picture below sees Desmond Morton of Mi6 discussing the formation of Krassin’s All Russian Co-operative Society with Florence’s cousin Rafaela Farina in October 1920. Other files indicate that Farina was working at the Russian Section of Mi5 as early as June 1919.

The night prior to her death, Florence had visited Rafaele’s mother, the Baroness Farina at her home in Tonbridge, some 30 miles south of London. Even though her friend Mabel Rogers claims that Florence knew of her trip to visit friends in St Leonards on Sea in advance, she first goes back to London. It’s an unusual move in the circumstances, as Tonbridge was already more than half-way to St Leonards, and was located on the very same route. It would have saved time, energy and money to have travelled from her Aunt’s house in Tonbridge on that same Sunday evening and arrive in St Leonards that very same day. What was so important that she first had go back to London?

The coroner at the inquest into Florence’s death also quizzed Mabel on her unexpected stop in Tonbridge on the night she’d learned that Florence had been brutally attacked. She made her way to the hospital but stopped at Tombridge Station. Mabel — superintendent of the Conforth Lodge Nursing Home in Hammersmith, London — arrived in Tonbridge at 12.00am and arrived at the hospital some three hours later. The entire journey that Florence was take to Hastings would have been around two-hours twenty minutes in total, so arriving at the half way point in Tonbridge should have taken about one hour ten minutes at the very most.

Did Mabel meet with Baroness Farina prior to heading to the hospital? At the inquest it was not clear why she could only get as far as Tonbridge before managing to ‘motor on’. Did Mabel have to wait more than an hour for a connection? The train from Victoria that Florence Shore had taken earlier in the day was a direct connection to Hastings. It’s a minor point but worth mentioning.

(File KV 2/818, National Archives)

In a more peculiar twist it also transpires that in June 1920, shortly after the murder Florence en-route to St Leonards on Sea, her Mi5 cousin, Rafaele made tentative enquiries to Hastings Police about Russians living at an address in St Leonards on Sea.

The man residing at the address was a prominent White Russian called Count Paul Ignatieff, a close friend of the murdered Tsar Nicholas II who had served as a member of the Provisional Government shortly after his abdication on March 5th 1917. The address at the centre of Farina’s enquiries was Woodmancote – a private nursing home on Woodlands Road, about a fifteen minute walk from Warrior Station.

For a time Count Paul Ignatieff had served as President of the White Russian Red Cross. His cousin (also called Paul/Paval) was a high ranking officer of Imperial Russian Intelligence in France. His sister, Catherine had served as a matron/nurse and died serving abroad in 1914.

After the First Revolution of February 1917, Count Paul Ignatieff, became a Minister in the Provisional Government and Chief of Department of Home Affairs. He was born to Count Nikolay Ignatieff, an aggressive militarist and ultra-Conservative who had previously served as Aide de Camp to the Romanovs and as Ambassador in Constantinople during the years 1864-1877 5. After the Second (October/Bolshevik) Revolution Pthe Count was forced to flee with his family. According to the Mi5 KV 2 files at the National Archives, most of his correspondence suggests the Count was spending much of his time between France and Constantinople (where he was born). This is interesting in light of Ernest C Brown’s claim that after he was quizzed about the Murder of Florence Nightingale Shore, he was arrested in Constantinople the following year.

At Constantinople Conference of 1876, Lord Salisbury and the Count’s father General Nikolay Ignatieff had walked arm and arm down Pera’s tortuous main street discussing the international issues of the day. His father

In 1919 Count Paul Ignatieff applied to live in the UK. In the KV2 files there is a letter dated September 1919 in which Rafaele Farina apologies for not being able to help Paul and his family secure British visas for their friends in exile in France. His application was being turned down (perhaps on the basis that like the Count, they were key members of the the White Russian League whose leaders, Generals Kolchak and Yudenich were about to be betrayed by Britain and America).

However, by July 1919 Farina can be seen informing the Ignatieffs of the Home Office decision to award Paul and his family visas.

It seems very unusual that Florence should have been heading to St Leonards on Sea so soon after visiting Rafaele’s mother. It also seems unusual that Farina should discover Ignatieff at that address, as it was someone he’d already secured visas for.

Florence’s cousin and Mi5’s Head of Russia Section, Rafaele Farina (R.L) making enquiries that relate to an address in St Leonards on Sea, June 1920 (Count Paul Nikolaievitch Ignatieff File KV 2/2407)

2 I think the man that Ernest C Brown refers to as his friend at the Faslane naval base, Lieutenant Commander Rowe was Lieutenant Commander George Moore Allender Rowe, RN who died in a motor-cycle accident in April 1920, just months after Brown’s arrest.

3 Boris Johnson’s grandfather, Ali Kemal Bey was hung as result of the tensions and counter-plots that arose from the events in 1922.

4 Brown provided his interview to the Canton Daily News just a few months prior to Makgill’s sudden death in October 1926. It is also interesting that Brown made his way from Scotland to Sheffield, England on Boxing Day, 1919 – the very day that Toplis is alleged to have deserted Bulford Camp. That same week h headed to Alfreton (near Sheffield).

5 Count Nikolay Ignatieff had also served as Russian’s military attache in London, during which he was able to provide a far-reaching report on Britain’s military capabilities in India (and stole a new cartridge that had been in development at the ordnance works of the British Army) . In 1860 he had also been made Major General in the Imperial Suite and sent as plenipotentiary to China where he concluded a treaty during which the province of Ussuri was ceded by China to Russia. As a result he was made Director at Russia’s Department of the Asiatic. Reuters mis-attributed the assassination of his brother, General Alexei Ignatieff to Nikolay in 106 (see: Morning Post 09 May 1906, p.7). Alexei was alleged to have been shot dead by members of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party in May 1906. However, a report in the New York Times in 1905 reported rumors, circulating in St. Petersburg, that Ignatieff had been arrested on suspicion of launching a rebellion against the Tsar.

You can buy The Nightingale Shore Murder by Rosemary Cook at the link below:


The Nightingale Shore Murder: Death of a World War 1 Heroine, Rosemary Cook — view blog

Imperial Spies Invade Russia: The British Intelligence Interventions, 1918,
A. J. Plotke, Greenwood Press, 1993

The British Military Involvement in Transcaucasia, 1917-1919, Artin Hagop Arslanian, 1974

The First World Oil War, Timothy C. Winegard, University of Toronto Press, 2016

Foreign Policy of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Jamil Hasanli, Routledge, 2015

Latest Theories Concerning Percy Toplis, Sunday Post 13 June 1920, p.16

Train Outrage Mystery, Brown Aberdeen Press and Journal 19 January 1920

Scotland Yard Assist in Tracking Assailant, Nottingham Evening Post 17 January 1920, p.3

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